Ecol Indic. Three negative control samples were used to monitor any contamination during the molecular workflow, negative filtration, DNA extraction, and PCR controls; however, no quantifiable DNA was detected for further analysis. Alpha diversity index per diatom community for each sample type. Hydrol Res. b Representative diatoms genera in different landform types from the river source to mouth along the Yangtze River. PubMed  2018;45:1582–92. CAS  Benthic Foraminifera Planktonic Foraminifera Oxygen Isotope Stage Planktic Foraminifera Marine Micropaleontology These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, et al. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0771-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0771-x. Ecol Monogr. 2011;91:526–35. Exploring the molecular basis of responses to light in marine diatoms. Figure S11. Beaulieu JJ, Shuster WD, Rebholz JA. Furthermore, slope effects on diatoms might be identified in terms of ecological guilds. Furthermore, a number of indicator species belonging to Tabellariales and Hemiaulales occurred in water-plateau and sediment-plateau samples, respectively. Moreover, water temperature is a key environmental factor in structuring diatom community assemblages through its influence on diatom size and growth rate [37] in the Yangtze River (Additional file 1: Table S3). Recently, the V4 region of 18S rDNA was proposed for diatom barcoding in studies of diatoms in river and deltaic systems [9, 12]. Geomorphology. Morphological analysis requires extensive taxonomic expertise and may exhibit shortcomings in characterizing specific diatoms in rivers [8]. Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Sedell JR, Cushing CE. Further going down to the Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain, there exists a general decrease of altitude and increase of temperature and nutrient levels (nitrogen and phosphorus). Keck F, Franc A, Kahlert M. Disentangling the processes driving the biogeography of freshwater diatoms: a multiscale approach. Solar radiation with wavelengths (400–700 nm), called photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), is able to be utilized by plants and algae through photosynthesis to convert light energy into biomass [34]. Integrated biogeography of planktonic and sedimentary bacterial communities in the Yangtze River. 1980;37:130–7. 2003;18:225–43. Dili Xuebao/Acta Geogr Sin. Correspondence to Cite this article. Table S3. CAS  Diatoms are ubiquitous and diverse species of single-celled, eukaryotic, photosynthetic microorganisms [3], and are often the dominant primary producers in marine and freshwater ecosystems [4]. Hanson CA, Fuhrman JA, Horner-Devine MC, Martiny JBH. Buma AGJ, Engelen AH, Gieskes WWC. Google Scholar. 2007;584:133–43. Ann Arbor, Michigan; 1983. 2009;636:137–51. Referring to a previous study on landform types in the Yangtze [30], planktonic diatoms were represented by Cymbella, Asterionella, Stephanodiscus, Melosira, Cyclotella, and Conticribra in the plateau, mountain, foothill, basin, foothill-mountain, and plain regions, respectively, while benthic diatoms were abundant by Cymbella, Navicula, Melosira, Conticribra, Cyclotella, and Surirella, respectively, in the corresponding regions (Fig. Aquat Microb Ecol. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;620:135–47. For example, Actinocyclus spp., Aulacoseira spp., Cyclotella spp., Fragilaria spp., and Synedra spp. Rarefaction curves of diatom richness for 279 samples. Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. In the Yangtze River, we observed that the richness of benthic diatoms tended to rise with increasing temperature (Fig. In other words, the motile guild can respond quickly to environmental changes, and benthic diatoms dominated by motile guild are more appropriate to reflect the influence of environmental heterogeneity along the river. In the pelagic zone, photosynthetic organisms as well as active predators are dominant. Synchronous water and sediment sampling along the Yangtze River makes it possible to compare the biogeography of planktonic and benthic diatoms. Review of basic definitions of nekton, benthos, and plankton with examples. Moreover, species-specific responses to nitrogen and phosphorus in the production and growth of diatoms would be more complex. Figure S2. Figure S5. Bopp L, Aumont O, Cadule P, Alvain S, Gehlen M. Response of diatoms distribution to global warming and potential implications : a global model study. 2008;596:173–85. Clean reads were further assigned to known diatom species based on our reference database. Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map. Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, et al. Figure S4. Variation partitioning of diatom composition showed that a greater percentage (14.6–21.2%) could be explained by a purely environmental component than that (3.4–6.0%) of the total variation by a pure spatial component (Additional file 1: Figure S12), and a minor portion (0.4–5.4%) explained by spatially structured environmental heterogeneity, leaving the majority of the total variation (68.7–79.0%) inexplicable. Although environmental differentiation seemed more important than spatial dispersing in shaping a diatom community, neither could fully explain the total variation in diatom composition. Spatial distributions of ecological guilds for different channel slopes are shown in (e). College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, Jiawen Wang, Qingxiang Liu, Yuxin Liu & Qian Chen, Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430079, China, Institute of Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK, State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining, 810016, China, Beijing Innovation Center for Engineering Science and Advanced Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, You can also search for this author in Variation in community composition explained by environmental, spatial, and spatially structured environmental components. For a better understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of both planktonic and benthic diatom communities, LefSe analysis was used considering its advantages in identifying differentially abundant taxa under different environmental conditions [36]. The remainder live on or in the sand, mud, rocks and plants at the bottom of the ocean. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. For example, Nitzschia palea [61] is phosphorus limited, but Chaetoceros calcitrans [62] is efficient in nitrogen assimilation, regardless the unclear mechanism on diatom utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus in different forms [63, 64]. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) was conducted to test the significance of differences among a priori sampling groups based on environmental parameters. CAS  The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecoystems. Tsuda A, Takeda S, Saito H, Nishioka J, Nojiri Y, Kudo I, et al. Lin Z-H, Mo X-G, Li H-X, Li H-B. Depending on the particular species and the environmental conditions, larval or juvenile-stage meroplankton may remain in the pelagic zone for durations ranging from hour to months. In fact, previous reports on the dynamics of riverine diatoms have mostly focused on tributaries, small rivers, reaches, stations, and estuaries [18,19,20]. First let's learn how to recognize planktonic vs benthic diatom, and try out our skills. Kunz et al [48] reported that sediment, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were trapped by the reservoir immediately upstream of the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam, increasing the N:P ratio downstream of the dam. 2012;63:1575–91. Rarefaction curves (Additional file 1: Figure S1) together with high values of Good’s coverage ranging from 0.9854 to 0.9992 illustrated that OTUs obtained by the current sequencing depth gave a reasonable representation of the diatom communities. While planktonic (suspended) and benthic (stream bed) cyanobacteria share similar traits, their visual appearances are quite different. 4c). Finally, a total of 4573 unique sequences were retained in our reference database. Google Scholar. DNA was extracted in triplicate using the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Segata N, Izard J, Waldron L, Gevers D, Miropolsky L, Garrett WS, et al. PubMed  Both planktonic and benthic species are sensitive to changes in food availability as well as physical environmental parameters, such as salinity and temperature. 2011;12:R60. For relatively oligotrophic rivers like the Yangtze River, it appeared that TN was more important than TP as limiting nutrients to planktonic and benthic community variability (Additional file 1: Table S3). Nat Rev Microbiol. Planktonic GPP increased with nutrients status, whereas benthic GPP decreased. J Geophys Res Biogeosci. Limnol Oceanogr. Visco JA, Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil L, Cordonier A, Esling P, Pillet L, Pawlowski J. Afterwards, sample libraries were pooled in equimolar amounts and sequenced on Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 PE platform (Majorbio Company, Shanghai, China). Partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA) was performed to decompose the total variation in diatom community into a pure environmental component, a pure spatial component, a spatially structured environmental component, and residual variation. 2004;89:139–50. Boyd PW, Watson AJ, Law CS, Abraham ER, Trull T, Murdoch R, et al. Planktonic forams appeared ~200 million years ago. Based on their ecological characteristics, diatom species are classified into four ecological guilds (low profile, high profile, motile, and planktic guilds) [31,32,33], which are expected to respond in different ways to nutrients’ conditions and physical disturbances. Ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphate. 169-181. Planktonic (adjective) Floating in the open sea rather than living on the seafloor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Arai H, Fukushima T. Impacts of long-term increase in silicon concentration on diatom blooms in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. Ecological background of diatom functional groups: comparability of classification systems. Effects of small-scale turbulence on the growth of two diatoms of different size in a phosphorus-limited medium. Moreover, the composition of benthic diatoms appeared to be strongly influenced by temperature (Additional file 1: Table S3), suggesting that benthic diatoms are more sensitive to temperature changes than planktonic diatoms in river ecosystem. First, they are both single-celled creatures. By using this website, you agree to our Cookies policy. Inner circular diagram shows relative abundance of different diatom genus in six sample types. PubMed Central  This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Depauw FA, Rogato A, D’Alcalá MR, Falciatore A. 1998;281:237–40. This disperse ability is a key adaptation of benthic marine invertebrates. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. On the one hand, although the diversity of planktonic and benthic diatoms was very similar in non-plateau area (Additional file 1: Figure S3), their community composition was remarkably different. Google Scholar. Moreover, TN:TP exhibited a fluctuation between upstream and downstream of large dams (Xiluodu Dam and Three Gorges Dam). Kheiri S, Solak CN, Edlund MB, Spaulding S, Nejadsattari T, Asri Y, et al. Nutrient level (TN:TP) had different effects on the diversity and variation of planktonic and benthic diatoms. The spatial distribution of TN:TP in water and sediment samples varied in different sampling stations. Furthermore, one-way ANOVA analysis also revealed significant difference in environmental variables (pH (P = 0.003), NH4-N (P < 0.001), TN (P < 0.001), and TN:TP (P = 0.01)) for sediment samples immediately before and after the Three Gorges Dam. 2000;407:695–702. Distance relationship of TN:TP for sampling sites along the mainstream (e). 2002;153:51–68. statement and Significant distance-decay in diatom similarity was observed along the geographical distance (Additional file 1: Figure S11), with a greater slope of the curve for water (slope = − 0.042) than for sediment (slope = − 0.038) using least squares linear regression. The Yangtze River flows through a variety of landforms such as plateau, mountain, foothill, basin, foothill-mountain, and plain regions along the river continuum [30]. (Bacillariophyceae) in a shallow river and estimation of effective suppression flows. Water (Switzerland). High flow downstream of dams has caused severe erosion of the riverbed and led to coarsening of bed materials [49]. Biogeographical distribution of ecological guilds throughout the mainstream of the Yangtze River. In riverine ecosystems, both planktonic and benthic algae are the important components of primary producers. 2012;13:222–31. Freshwater bodies typically consist of lentic (particularly lakes and wetlands) and lotic waters (including streams and rivers), which are often dominated respectively by planktonic algae and benthic species [7]. planktonic . Article  Jinren Ni. Geophys Res Lett. Compilations of deep sea benthic foraminifer oxygen isotopes have revealed the long history of global climate change over the past 100 million years. Flowchart of the study. 2014;119:143–53. Environmental drivers of diatom communities were interpreted in terms of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, channel slope and nutrients, and human interference. Diatoms play a particularly important role in the biogeochemical cycle [1] of primary elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica, contributing about 20–25% of global primary production [2]. However, it remains unclear how the integrated spatiotemporal distributions of planktonic and benthic diatom communities are shaped by spatial dispersal and environmental selection processes in large rivers subject to complex natural and anthropogenic impacts. Nevertheless, the aforementioned environmental factors are subject to change due to human interference. Cohn SA, Farrell JF, Munro JD, Ragland RL, Weitzell RE, Wibisono BL. Finally, 84 water samples (i.e., 38 water-spring samples and 46 water-autumn samples) and 171 sediment samples (i.e., 87 sediment-spring samples and 84 sediment-autumn samples) were obtained for studying the seasonal and spatial distribution of diatom communities in the non-plateau area. PubMed  Google Scholar. predominated in diatom communities in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan [41]. 402-409. Geographical patterns of micro-organismal community structure: are diatoms ubiquitously distributed across boreal streams? Environmental parameters including water temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured for water samples according to Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) recommended by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China. In March (spring) and October (autumn) of 2014, water and sediment samples were synchronously (i.e., within 1 week) collected for planktonic and benthic diatom identification at 50 national monitoring stations (the non-plateau area) along the mainstream and six major tributaries of the Yangtze River.
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