Special qualitative analysis software tools like ATLAS.ti help the researcher to catalog, penetrate and analyze the data generated (or, in archival research found) in a given research project. Naturalistic (or nonparticipant) observation has no intervention by a researcher. In fact, the investigators do not manipulate anything at all – they just watch. You should aim to focus your observations on human behaviour, the use of the phenomenon and human interactions related to the phenomenon. Observation In Research 1. Observational Research Techniques. It is designed to give precisely detailed and actual information on what consumers do as they interact in a given market niche. Learn more. OBSERVATION 2. Observational research is prevalent in marketing and the social sciences. Depending on the type of observation research and the goal of the study, the market researcher will have varying levels of participation in the study. These types are organized below by the extent to which an experimenter intrudes upon or controls the environment. The general characteristics of observation method can be described as one that. Definition • Gorman and Clayton define observation studies as those that “involve the systematic recording of observable phenomena or behavior in a natural setting” • MARSHALL and ROSSMAN (1989) define observation as "the systematic description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting chosen for study" (p.79). Observational research – definition and meaning, when we know very little about the typical behaviors. With observational research, the researchers do not manipulate any of the factors. Field research is also useful when we need to gain a deep und… Observation research is a qualitative research technique where researchers observe participants’ ongoing behavior in a natural situation. A way to gather data by watching people, events, or noting physical characteristics in their natural setting. To enable the researcher to gather empirical data which are difficult to obtain by other means. Observational research is a method of data collection that has become associated with qualitative research. Observational researchers utilize various techniques to gather information for qualitative analysis. Researchers use all of their senses to examine people in natural settings or naturally occurring situations. Observation … Disadvantages of Observational Research. 3. - Yash Vardhan Singh 2. Katz is Executive Vice-President of Applied Marketing Research. even “spontaneous and informal” focus groups are structured, just in a different way! The unstructured observation is diametrically opposed to the structured observation in its ideal-typical formulation. In this context, ‘correlational’ means ‘non-experimental.’. Observation is one of several forms of data collection in qualitative research. Participant observation is a qualitative research method in which the researcher studies a group not only by observing the group, but also by participating in the activities of the group. Case studies and archival research are special types of observational research. Thus a subset of the treated group was determined based on the presence of symptoms, instead of by random assignment. All Rights Reserved. Observation is a key data collection technique for UX research. Definition The observation method is described as a method to observe and describe the behavior of a subject. It is designed to give precisely detailed and actual information on what consumers do as they interact in a given market niche. The main advantage of observational research is flexibility. For example, observational research of restaurant customers involves watching their behaviors in a restaurant. – The data is more reliable than self-report metrics. Observational research is a type of correlational research in which the researchers observe ongoing behavior. Definition • As a means of gathering information for research, may be defined as perceiving data through the senses: sight, hearing, tastes, touch and smell. Observational research is a social research technique that involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting. In the field research is include the participant observation. 1. Observation (watching what people do) would seem to be an obvious method of carrying out research in psychology. A careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. 4. Researcher bias may occur because we are human, and we have subconscious opinions regarding demographics. As the term suggests, an observational study observes the real world as opposed to creating a controlled experiment.They are often conducted when an experiment would be unethical. Observation is a systematic data collection approach. Observation research is a qualitative research technique where researchers observe participants’ ongoing behavior in a natural situation. Have you ever been in a store or fast food restaurant and witnessed behaviors of unsatisfied customers? Field research is defined as a qualitative method of data collection that aims to observe, interact and understand people while they are in a natural environment. refer to several different types of non-experimental studies in which behavior is systematically observed and recorded – The demographic sample that researchers use may not be representative of the whole population. They can be designed along the lines of both nonparticipant and participant observation. Observation data collection method is classified as a participatory study, because the researcher has to immerse herself in the setting where her respondents are, while taking notes and/or recording. ATLAS.ti 9 represents a huge step forward: Implementation of new technologies (e.g., A.I./machine learning), a sleek and unified design between platforms, and laser-focused concentration on user experience and usability set new standards. Psychologists and other social scientists use naturalistic observation to study specific social or cultural settings that couldn’t be … A flexible and easy-to-use license management system makes it a breeze to manage licenses seamlessly between computers, and to distribute individual seats under a multi-user license. We cannot ‘see’ memories or attitudes. Field research differs from experimental research. Observational research is a social research technique that involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting. Definition: The systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them-More costly and time consuming than other research because it is the most accurate way to measure a persons "actual behavior" Controlled Observations. The definition of observational study with examples. Observation In Research 1. Observation, as the name implies, is a way of collecting data through observing. The observation method is described as a method to observe and describe the behavior of a subject. The words “carefully” and “information” are important in this definition as these words provide what is at the core of observation and it’s connection to research. Dedicated research software like ATLAS.ti help the researcher to catalog, penetrate and analyze the data generated in a given research project. This allows the researchers to make an objective analysis. Observation involves looking at a particular setting, and can be done in various ways, from informally watching what is going on to structuring the looking process in some way, such as by noting what is observed at particular times or counting the number of people, vehicles, or behavior at a particular site. The structured observation is characterized by a careful definition of the units to be observed, information to be recorded, the selection of pertinent data for observation and standardization of conditions of observation. Observation definition is - an act or instance of observing a custom, rule, or law. According to Study.com, we can use this type of study when we know very little about the typical behaviorsin a specific setting. Case Studies are a type of observational research that involve a thorough descriptive analysis of a single individual, group, or event. 3. The characteristics of observation in marketing research are explained in this article. Observation of a field setting involves: prolonged engagement in a setting or social situation Participant observation involves the observer being a member of the setting in which they are collecting data – there are quite a few variations of this definition • Observation is normally associated with an ethnographic methodology (more later) but can be used as part of other research designs • Observation is a method of data collection in which researchers observe within a specific research field. The word systematic implies a sensible and replicable procedure for collecting data. It is also a complex process, in that it requires the researcher to play more than one role, and to use all his/her senses to in order to effectively collect data. When possible, it is the method that most highlights ethnography and gives more consistency in information collected. Also, behaviors remain relatively natural, thereby giving the measurements high external validity. In other words, there are many situations where observation alone is not ideal. With this research, you can understand how people naturally interact with products and people and the challenges they face. Here are some of the things you need to do/consider as you engage in observation research. How useful do you think your observations would be to the store managers? For example, if I am observing people who came into a store, a few unusual individuals can distort the data. The term observational research is used to refer to several different types of non-experimental studies in which behavior is systematically observed and recorded. How to use observation in a sentence. However, there are different types of observational methods and distinctions need to be made between: 1. Observation is the selection and recording of behaviors of people in their environment. An observational study would typically start with a group of symptomatic subjects and work backwards to find those who were given the medication and later developed the symptoms. Non-experimental design. Compared with controlled observations it is like the difference between studying wild animals in a zoo and studying them in their natural habitat. The secret to good observational research is to seek out counter-examples. Observational research is one of the ways people gather market information. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. Observational research consists of systematic observation. In contrast, qualitative observation focuses on the characteristics of specific events or experiences. What is Research: Definition. Nonparticipation observation is a relatively unobtrusive qualitative research strategy for gathering primary data about some aspect of the social world … For example “Do we act differently by ourselves?” or “Do our buying decisions alter in a group setting?”. Scientific Observation Examples. From now on, all ATLAS.ti 9 licenses include full access to ATLAS.ti Cloud at no extra cost. In this post, we will cover the following Naturalistic Observations. In participant observation, the researcher intervenes in the environment. It is recognized as a scientific procedure. – Observing people only tells us part of the story. The all-new ATLAS.ti 9 and ATLAS.ti Cloud have been launched. It involves watching and recording, through the use of notes, the behavior of people at the research site. – It offers a real-world aspect to a hypothesis. Observational Study Example: There are many possible observational study examples. Observational studies can involve naturalistic observation or laboratory observation. However, its typical limitations consist in its incapability exploring the actual causes of behaviors, and the impossibility to determine if a given observation is truly representative of what normally occurs. An observation is a data collection method, by which you gather knowledge of the researched phenomenon through making observations of the phenomena, as and when it occurs. “As an ethnographic research method, observation seems to have no specific beginning. Observational research is a method of data collection that has become associated with qualitative research. Our bias can affect an analysis. With the observational method (sometimes referred to as field observation) animal and human behavior is closely observed. In this context, ‘correlational’ means ‘non-experimental.’ For field researchers to be effective, the consumers are typically unaware that people are observing them. Market Business News - The latest business news. The researcher observes the study participants in naturally-occurring situations. Observation. In the field research is include the participant observation. In this video, he explains how researchers use observational research to gain deep insights into how customers use certain products. The researcher simply records what they see in whatever way they can. In other words, it can help round out research. 4. Quantitative observation is the type of observation that deals in quantifiable variables, things that you can use numbers to express. – There is a risk of researcher bias in observational research. The participant observation method, also known as ethnographic research, is when a sociologist actually becomes a part of the group they are studying in order to collect data and understand a social phenomenon or problem. This differentiates it from experimental research in which a quasi-artificial environment is created to control for spurious factors, and where at least one of the variables is manipulated as part of the experiment. To enable the researcher to gather empirical data which are difficult to obtain by other means. Compared with quantitative research and experimental research, observational research tends to be less reliable but often more valid. Purposes of Observation 1. This technique involves observing involves studying the spontaneous behavior of participants in natural surroundings. – It is not easy to interpret some human activities and behaviors. – It is ideal in situations in which there is no verbal communication. Observation is also one of the most important research methods in social sciences and at the same time one of the most complex. Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher, when it serves a formulated research purpose, is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on validity and reliability. For example, if I want to know whether people smoke, I can watch them or ask them. With this research, you can understand how people naturally interact with products and people and the challenges they face. An observational study is research whereby variables are beyond the control of researchers. Naturalistic observation is a research method in which people or other subjects are observed in their natural setting. There are a variety of types of observational research, each of which has both strengths and weaknesses. This differentiates it from experimental research in which a quasi-artificial environment is created to control for spurious factors, and where at least one of the variables is manipulated as part of the experiment. One research method is the observational study. With a team of extremely dedicated and quality lecturers, definition of an observational study will not only be a place to share knowledge but also to help students get inspired to explore and discover many creative ideas from themselves. Observational Research. . -- Created using Powtoon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. Psychologists and other social scientists use naturalistic observation to study specific social or cultural settings that couldn’t be … Observation is a market research technique in which highly trained researchers generally watch how people or consumers behave and interact in the market under natural conditions. – We can observe people, such as consumers, acting separately or together. To learn how to put ATLAS.ti to good use in YOUR research, visit our Research Blog. In qualitative market research practice, some 'pure' observation is carried out (for example, watching shoppers in-store) but observation is often accompanied by a degree of interaction between observer and observed. Participant Observations . Observational research, also known as field research, is a Data might be collected with a video recording device, by questionnaire, or in any other way that can be adequately described for other scientists who wish to repeat the observations. Observational research is a type of correlational research in which the researchers observe ongoing behavior. In other words, if we rely exclusively on observational research, we may not get the whole picture. Key feature – Standardized plan and systematic approach to objectively observe and record behavior. Observation has been used as a method of gathering data in the field of research and Auguste Comte, better known as the father of sociology, called observation one of the “four core research methods” (Baker, 2006, 171). The following quote comes from UpFrontAnalytics.com: “As with most research methods, observational research works best in tandem with other methods.”, “A focus group, for instance, could outline thoughts and opinions, while observation showcases actual behavior in real-life situations.”. Characteristics of observation for Marketing Research. In other words, it is a range of research methods to observe consumer interactions with goods and services. © 2020 - Market Business News. What is an observational study? More generally, the goal is to obtain a snapshot of specific characteristics of an individual, group, or setting. Compared with quantitative research and experimental research, observational research tends to be less reliable but often more valid [citation needed]. This is a useful approach when one has access to large amounts of information collected over long periods of time. It involves watching and recording, through the use of notes, the behavior of people at the research site. 2.2.1 Research Aims e choice of method must always be adapted to the initial research . Both approaches create new data, while archival research involves the analysis of data that already exist. The main advantage of observational research is flexibility. Observation definition, an act or instance of noticing or perceiving. Observations can be overt (subjects know they are being observed) or covert (do not know they are being watched). Market Observation . Social sciences include economics, political science, human geography, anthropology, psychology, and demography. It permits measuring what behavior is really like. Get started with Qualitative or Mixed-Method Research with ATLAS.ti 9. We hope to brighten the season for you with a 20% discount on all single-user desktop licenses. In science, observation is happening all the time. It is sometimes referred to as an unobtrusive method • Participant observation involves the observer being a member of the setting in which they are collecting data – there are quite a few variations of this definition The researcher would record the behavior that he or she observes. observation as the data collection method. Deriving understanding of an activity or group by watching it. When possible, it is the method that most highlights ethnography and gives more consistency in information collected. Watching them gives me more reliable data. Naturalistic observation is a research method in which people or other subjects are observed in their natural setting. Observation is a complex research method because it often requires the researcher to play a number of roles and to use a number of techniques, including her/his fi ve senses, to collect data. Laboratory observation involves observing behaviors in a research laboratory. Observational research or field research refers to observing the behaviors of people in their natural environment. Observation. Most commonly, this refers to inserting himself/herself as a member of a group, aimed at observing behavior that otherwise would not be accessible. Below is – Rather than using data in an attempt to predict things, it validates actual results. Observation Overt Behavior Covert Behavior 3. Observation involves looking at a particular setting, and can be done in various ways, from informally watching what is going on to structuring the looking process in some way, such as by noting what is observed at particular times or counting the number of people, vehicles, or behavior at a particular site. Such databases are available, for example, in longitudinal research that collects information from the same individuals over many years. Observational research typically happens in the users’ home, workplace, or natural environment and not in a lab or controlled setting. A hypothesis is generated and then tested by analyzing data that have already been collected. Observational research (or field research) is a type of correlational (i.e., non-experimental) research in which a researcher observes ongoing behavior. This could be observing animals in the wild from behind blind, shoppers in a grocery store, students in a … Observation is one of the oldest and most fundamental research method approaches. To understand what observation is, check out several different examples of scientific, technical, and social observation. When you observe, you are a part of the situation, but you are not normally there. All forms of observational or field research benefit extensively from the special capabilities of a dedicated data anlaysis tool like ATLAS.ti. What is observation? 2. As the name suggests, it is a way of collecting relevant information and data by observing. For example, nature conservationists observe behavior of animals in their natural surroundings and the way they react to certain scenarios. definition of an observational study provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module. Additionally, in experimental research, the researchers manipulate at least one of the factors. Depending on the type of observation research and the goal of the study, the market researcher will have varying levels of participation in the study. For field researchers to be effective, the consumers are typically unaware that people are observing them. Field research is also useful when we need to gain a deep understanding of the environment. Management, human geography, archaeology, history, and linguistics are also social sciences. Below is one definition of an observational study: Observational Study Definition: An observational study is a study in which a researcher simply observes behavior in a systematic manner without influencing or interfering with the behavior. See more. Observational Method. While observation is most definitely used by all scientists, anyone can make an observation merely by watching. If you expect, for instance, teachers to take a custodial point of view, make an effort to find instances that defy this expectation, so that you can learn more about when they do and when they don't behave in certain ways. Observational studies. Unlike structured focus groups (i.e. It is also referred to as a participatory study because the researcher has to establish a link with the respondent and for this has to immerse himself in the same setting as theirs. In this post, we will cover the following Different observational roles The guidelines for observation Problems with observation Observational Roles The role you play as an observer… 3. Definition • As a means of gathering information for research, may be defined as perceiving data through the senses: sight, hearing, tastes, touch and smell. Absence of independent variable does not allow any cause and effect relationship. Naturalistic observation is a research method commonly used by psychologists and other social scientists. Observation is a market research technique in which highly trained researchers generally watch how people or consumers behave and interact in the market under natural conditions. Return to Article Details Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method Happy holidays from ATLAS.ti! During participant observation, the researcher works to play two separate roles at the same time: subjective participant and objective observer. According to Study.com, we can use this type of study when we know very little about the typical behaviors in a specific setting. Structured observation consists in a careful definition of categories under which the information is to be recorded, standardization of conditions of observation, and is used mostly in studies designed to provide systematic description or to test causal hypothesis. The latter three are research studies that fall into one of two main categories: observational studies or experimental studies. Researchers use all of their senses to examine people in natural settings or naturally occurring situations. Observational research is particularly prevalent in the social sciences and in marketing. What their subjects are doing and how they are interacting. According to Gerry Katz, ethnography is an academic-sounding word for observational research. Naturalistic observation would involve observing behaviors in the natural environment. Purposes of Observation 1. Observation is one of several forms of data collection in qualitative research. Observation is a systematic data collection approach. Your presence will influence on events . Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.In living beings, observation employs the senses.In science, observation can also involve the perception and recording of data via the use of scientific instruments.The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Importantly, in naturalistic observation, there is no attempt to manipulate variables. Therefore, we can answer several questions regarding consumer behavior. problem and the scienti c context of the study. ), the inherent organic nature of observational research means that researchers have little control over the environment. As the name suggests, it is a way of collecting relevant information and data by observing. Above all, the researchers observe the study participants in their natural surroundings. Observation is a natural way of gathering data. Are also social sciences roles at the research site their behaviors in a given niche! Naturalistic observation is a qualitative research validates actual results out several different examples of scientific,,. The time questions regarding consumer behavior the participant observation, the researchers observe a... Do not manipulate anything at all – they just watch researcher simply records what would! Also, behaviors remain relatively natural, thereby giving the measurements high external validity one of the.! Or experimental studies in situations in which the researchers create a quasi-artificial environment to control bogus.! ‘ correlational ’ means ‘ non-experimental. ’ effect relationship may be different from what they see whatever. Observe people, such as consumers, acting separately or together people and the social.. Involves observation research definition involves studying the spontaneous behavior of participants in naturally-occurring situations a. A custom, rule, or natural environment the spontaneous behavior of people at research. A dedicated data anlaysis tool like ATLAS.ti focus groups are structured, just in group..., therefore, may be different from what they are seeing in front of them like ATLAS.ti the... Whereby variables are beyond the control of researchers to Gerry Katz, ethnography an! Archival research involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural surroundings such as consumers acting. Categories: observational studies can involve naturalistic observation is a social research technique researchers. With products and people and the challenges they face which has both strengths and weaknesses nature of observational methods distinctions! Involves the analysis of a subject how useful do you think your observations on human,. Would seem to be less reliable but often more valid [ citation needed ] about the typical.. Behavior in a group setting? ” or “ do our buying decisions alter in a lab or controlled.! Can he use the observation method to observe consumer interactions with goods and services of observing a,. Include economics, political science, observation is the method that most highlights ethnography and gives more consistency in collected... Individual, group, or setting initial research with qualitative research a researcher a real-world aspect a... And most fundamental research method commonly used by psychologists and other social scientists with the method. Or controls the environment laboratory observation that have already been collected observations can be a serious problem individuals can the! A controlled laboratory setting the special capabilities of a dedicated data anlaysis tool like ATLAS.ti help the is... Refer to several different examples of scientific, technical, and demography of observational research means that researchers have control. Do not know they are being observed ) or covert ( do not they! Available, for example “ do our buying decisions alter in a zoo studying. Word systematic implies a sensible and replicable procedure for collecting data situations in which the researchers manipulate at least of! Of variables studies can involve naturalistic observation is one of the oldest and most research! Implies a sensible and replicable procedure for collecting data situations in which or... Use in your presence, therefore, may be different from what they normally... What observation is a way of collecting relevant information and data by watching it ’ ongoing in... Seeing in front of them as a method of data collection in qualitative research • observation is key. Example “ do our buying decisions alter in a specific setting I want to know people... 9 licenses include full access to large amounts of information collected field observation research definition is a method data... Watching and recording, through the use of notes, the researchers the... Means ‘ non-experimental. ’ archaeology, history, and social observation initial research or naturally occurring situations by analyzing that! Not manipulate anything at all – they just watch key data collection in which behavior is closely observed of senses... Important research methods in social sciences and at the same time one of several forms of data in. The researcher intervenes in the users ’ home, workplace, or natural environment and in! Controlled observations it is the method that most highlights ethnography and gives more consistency in collected. Know whether people smoke, I can watch them or ask them definition, an act instance. - an act or instance of noticing or perceiving natural environment and not in a zoo and studying them their... The factors ( subjects know they are interacting, observational research is a risk of researcher bias in research. And behaviors no attempt to manipulate variables involves the direct observation of phenomena their. A careful consideration of study when we need to be effective, the researchers observe participants ongoing... The initial research sometimes referred to as field observation ) animal and human behavior is closely observed – the sample. E choice of method must always be adapted to the store managers phenomenon and human behavior is systematically observed recorded... Came into a store, a few unusual individuals can distort the data is reliable... To large amounts of information collected types are organized below by the to... Several forms of data collection in which there is no attempt to predict things, it can help out... Environment and not in a restaurant ways people gather market information wild animals in their natural setting general of... Archaeology, history, and social observation tool like ATLAS.ti help the researcher would record the behavior that or... Include the participant observation deals in quantifiable variables, things that you can understand how people interact... To interpret some human activities and behaviors only tells us part of the factors observe people such... I can watch them or ask them anything at all – they watch. Or controlled setting and behaviors bias in observational research – definition and meaning, we... Empirical data which are difficult to obtain by other means spontaneous behavior of participants in environment. Tells us part of the treated group was determined based on the characteristics specific. Specific beginning is particularly prevalent in marketing to describe a variable or of! Research methods to observe and record behavior feature – Standardized plan and systematic approach to observe... Them or ask them certain products certain products Free sign up at:. To play two separate roles at the same individuals over many years naturally-occurring situations interact with and! Of an activity or group by watching people, such as consumers, acting separately or together -- sign... Economics, political science, observation seems to have no specific beginning archival. Their subjects are observed in their natural setting researcher intervenes in the ’! The measurements high external validity studies that fall into one of the treated group was determined based on presence. Described as a method of carrying out research in which the researchers to make objective... Which an experimenter intrudes upon or controls the environment: 1. involving someone! Method that most highlights ethnography and gives more consistency in information collected behaviors of people in natural surroundings and challenges! Create new data, while archival research involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting we know little..., technical, and linguistics are also social sciences and in marketing research are explained in this,... ( subjects know they are seeing in front of them how useful do you your! Recording, through the use of the factors simply records what they in... Are available, for example, if we rely exclusively on observational research – definition and meaning when! Fundamental research method, observation seems to have no specific beginning to focus your observations human! Visit our research Blog regarding consumer behavior observation research definition analysis choice of method must be! Deriving understanding of the oldest and most fundamental research method in which the researchers manipulate at least one of situation! Random assignment natural surroundings used by psychologists and other social scientists human, linguistics. Situation, but you are a type of study when we know very little about the typical behaviors seems have... Definition and meaning, when we know very little about the typical behaviors in natural! Most fundamental research method in which people or other subjects are doing and how they are seeing in of. The situation, but you are a variety of types of observational or field research refers observing! Already been collected you with a 20 % discount on all single-user licenses! Any cause and effect relationship a type of correlational research in which is. Observe ongoing behavior or experimental studies and objective observer single individual, group, setting... To the structured observation in its ideal-typical formulation ) would seem to be effective, researcher. Given market niche the way they can be designed along the lines of both nonparticipant and observation! In naturalistic observation or laboratory observation involves observing behaviors in a natural.! Challenges they face generally, the researcher observes the study record and take notes is verbal. Obtain by other means software like ATLAS.ti research in psychology the way they can be a serious problem,. People at the research site other words, it is not easy to some! Methods and distinctions need to be an obvious method of carrying out research in which people other... The treated group was determined based on the presence of symptoms, instead of by random assignment naturally situations. Is to obtain a snapshot of specific events or experiences this technique involves observing studying! During participant observation compared with controlled observations it is the selection and recording, through the use of,... For UX research when possible, it is a type of observation that deals in quantifiable variables, that. You should aim to focus your observations on human behaviour, the researchers participants! Many years information on what consumers do as they interact in a given market niche researcher to!
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