Many types of networks were discussed in Chapter 1, "A Short History of Computer Networking," from ARCnet to TCP/IP. This visual representation helps to keep your network optimized. They are used by IT professionals and corporate IT departments, network and system administrators to visually document the logical topology of computer networks. NetWare has been around so long that you might find you have no choice when designing an upgrade but to keep using IPX/SPX, depending on the applications your network uses. Another important factor your management will probably force you to consider is cost—you can't forget the budget. For example, could be the logical network used for our design. In large servers, you'll find dual-redundant power supplies (each connected to a separate UPS), and disk arrays set up using RAID techniques to provide for data integrity in the event that a disk goes south. Introduction. Plan the network implementation. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Blog: $60 million later, one company learned a priceless lesson: decommission your data center devices properly. If your LAN is still using an older proprietary network protocol, you should seriously consider what it would take to upgrade to TCP/IP. ARCnet fills a special niche, especially in the factory automation environment. Don't replace tools that do a good job with a lesser tool that “does it all".... Physical network diagrams (as is common in DCIM software) depict the physical topology of the network and how the physical devices (or objects) are connected. A logical network diagram depicts how information in the network flows. Logical network topology illustrates, at a higher level, how data flows within a network. Don't leave any backdoors into or out of your network. Other protocols, such as Microsoft's LAN Manager, are used only in older networks. Easily create a diagram using the logical network diagram template above by signing up for a free Lucidchart account and then styling the diagram with our different formatting options. Sub-interfaces, VLANs, virtual and tunnel interfaces separate traffic, and also allow various forwarding and security methods to be applied to individual flows. Pay attention to the details. To save money, can you upgrade part of your network and use gateway hardware/software to connect to older network components? What are the resources you'll need? Logical vs. Spend time planning a design that provides network redundancy from a physical and logical perspective. When you plan a logical network design, you can start from one of two places. For a mobile user, this can be problematic if using an Internet service provided by the hotel. Yet the opposite is true of Ethernet. In addition to this, a physical network in one area … Logical Network Templates You can save many hours to create great logical network diagrams by starting from an existing template and using abundant built-in symbols next to the canvas. Another technology that can be used to provide an extra layer of redundancy, as well as high-speed access to storage devices, is the Storage Area Network (SAN). A logical network diagram illustrates the network architecture of a group of interconnected computers and other devices, such as printers, modems, switches, routers, and even mobile devices.These electronic components form the physical network that provides local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) access to users. In this chapter, we will look at another aspect of creating a network: the network's logical and physical design. For example, ARCnet is now used mostly in vertical-market applications (such as on the factory floor, or for point-of-sale cash registers). A logical network layout clearly shows the IP Addresses associated with each part of the network. Even Microsoft's now-legacy NetBIOS/NetBEUI protocols have been adapted to run over TCP/IP. Networking So when thinking about a network protocol, remember that it's not just one protocol you need to worry about. You should always be proactively looking for potential single points of failure and doing something to fix them. Hannah Ash is a marketing specialist who loves thinking, writing and speculating about the future of the data center. Today NetWare is a totally revamped solution to LAN connectivity. If an existing application can be used to accomplish the same goal, why do you need another application? This is basically the case for version 5.x and 6.x of NetWare. For a detailed introduction to TCP/IP, see Chapter 25, "Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite"; Chapter 26, "Basic TCP/IP Services and Applications"; and Chapter 28, "Troubleshooting Tools for TCP/IP Networks.". Ethernet was once considered to be a LAN protocol. > Required fields are marked *. Will you need clustered servers to provide for a high degree of uptime, or do your users' applications not suffer from a temporary loss of the use of a server? In addition to transport protocols such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX, you must consider application protocols that can be used on the network. With up-to-date diagrams, network admins can troubleshoot (and minimize downtime), plan […]. If you are a current NetWare user, you should read Chapter 32, "Overview of Novell NetWare IPX/SPX," and Chapter 34, "Expanding and Enhancing NDS: NetWare's eDirectory.". The old saying "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" doesn't apply to networks. If you are creating a new network and purchasing new applications, you will probably spend most of your time considering the licensing and other financial costs (training users, network personnel, and so on). With this easily customizable template, users can represent any existing logical network design. A commonly overlooked method for getting data files out of a network and onto the Internet is to simply send the files as an attachment to an email. If your network doesn’t fit in a shoebox, however, you will probably want to use some kind of automated network mapping software (such as netTerrain). It shows subnets, VLAN IDs, subnet masks and IP addresses. Because NetWare 6 is so tightly integrated with the IP protocol, and also offers backward compatibility with IPX/SPX, admins for existing NetWare networks should consider upgrading to NetWare 6 as well as considering other options. In Chapter 4, "Upgrading Strategies and Project Management," you'll find more information about surveying the user community to come up with a plan that places resources where they are needed. In addition to giving you a larger address space, IPv6 includes other important features. What services must you provide to your user community? If one server fails, other servers can be configured to provide redundant access to the data. How can you reset a server when you are at home, 20 miles away from the data center? Network Design: Logical and Physical Design In networking terminology, the term network topology refers to the entire structure of the network. Locate potential bottlenecks and, where possible, alleviate them by providing multiple paths to resources or by putting up servers that provide replicas of important data so that load balancing can be provided. To provide for maximum uptime, can you afford to build redundancy into your network? And if so, that still doesn't account for configuring a firewall to enable access to the Internet. Your email address will not be published. Are you preventing access to sites that are obviously not business-related? Physical Network Design The typical Top-Down approach to network design uses a systematic method to plan, design, and implement a new network. For example, utilize dual fiber-optic uplinks from the wiring closets to the core switches. If you have to compromise, what will it take to satisfy the most users or to provide the more important services? The same goes for what sites users will be allowed to access using a network browser and other network applications. Currently, TCP/IP version 4 is the most widely used protocol. A hot topic in many companies revolves around just how important it is to let all users have unlimited access to the Internet. You then will have to take into account network protocols, applications, network speed, and, most important, network security issues; each of these figures into a network's logical design. In addition to dedicated links between sites, the use of Virtual Private Networking (VPNs) is becoming a popular method for connecting to remote sites. While physical network diagrams are important, logical diagrams make network management easier in the following ways: As a logical or L3 network diagram should depict the logical network topology: in general, you’ll want to map out the following logical elements: Keep in mind that network diagrams are only as valuable to you as they are up-to-date. For example, depending on the services that will be provided to clients, you might need to analyze the possible traffic patterns that might result from your plan. Logical and Physical Network Design Logical and Physical Network Design Network design is a process that begins from the first thought on how to connect to computers together in order for them to communicate and pass needed data to each other. And, if you are using multiple links to remote sites, it's always a good idea to have more than a single path to the site. What will it cost to evaluate what kind of services user groups need to access from the Internet? Another cost associated with upgrading to new programs is training users and help-desk personnel. Consider the implications (such as support costs) to maintain older, proprietary protocols. After you've decided which protocols are necessary, research the security implications of each. Does one application overlap another? Lastly, do you monitor network usage? Articles If most of the network traffic you expect to see will come from the engineering department, you'll need to provide that department with a large data pipe. Besides, it refers to the arrangement of computers and other physical components. There is one very important reason you should consider TCP/IP as a LAN protocol: There are more trained professionals knowledgeable in TCP/IP than any other LAN protocol at this time. The most challenging and important part of it is the planning and design phases where different technical variables and technologies need to be considered that could even effect the product selection and the design entirely. And in Chapter 2, "Overview of Network Topologies," you learned about the various topologies you can employ when designing and creating a local area network (LAN), and we also looked at some scenarios in which several networks were connected to form a wide area network (WAN). To sum up, both logical and physical network diagrams play a key part in effectively managing the network. Logical Network Diagrams visualize the telecommunication and computer networks logical structure. So if you think you've blocked file transfers by disabling FTP access through the firewall, this example should show that you really do need to do a thorough evaluation of any new application or service you will allow on the network. Ethernet is the most popular LAN technology in the world today. If you want to provide a central name resolution service, you might choose the Domain Name Service (DNS), which is covered in Chapter 30, "Network Name Resolution." TCP/IP is the most popular protocol suite that runs on Ethernet. Depending on which technology you use, there will be one or more LAN topologies from which to choose. L2 (or L1) diagram– presenting physical connections between L3 devices and switches. Because proxy servers are an important component of firewalls, this subject is covered in greater detail in Chapter 49. What are their actual needs? Network Design & Architecture, Some of the Main Topics in this Chapter Are. Logical Network: A logical network is a virtual representation of a network that appears to the user as an entirely separate and self-contained network even though it might physically be only a portion of a larger network or a local area network. In real world deployments, there is usually a need for some users or applications to communicate with all users (eg system administrator). Of course, everyone knows that the most important function of a network today is to support multiuser gaming. Blog:…, Are you a sales/account manager with a background in software sales? For the following taxonomy, consider each subnet in your infrastructure as its own network. Physical network topologies use to play a much more significant role in network design. While technologies such as Network Address Translation (NAT) are widely employed to remedy the problem associated with the limited address space provided by IPv4, IPv6 will enable a much larger address space. If your network is tiny, you may be able to create a logical network diagram by hand — or creating Visio network diagrams. If this is the case with your network, you have to consider several things. You need to assess work patterns for various departments so that you can appropriately place servers, high-bandwidth links, and other such things in the appropriate physical location of the network. It has grown from a modest specification endorsed by Intel, DEC, and other vendors, such that it now can be considered a WAN protocol. 3. ConceptDraw Pro is a diagram construction tool that has developed a strong reputation amongst network administrators.… In this case, you also can justify the cost of the extra link by using load balancing so that network response time is improved. The capabilities introduced by current LAN technologies are beginning to erode the differences between a LAN and a MAN (metropolitan area network). During the topology design … Building a Campus network is more than only interconnecting physical network infrastructure devices. this speaks of the actual physical layout of your network which includes the actual nodes, segments and hosts that appear on the actual layout. This seems like a very simple question. Yet there are cases in which other technologies have their niches. The basic file and print services offered by early versions of NetWare were much better than other solutions available at that time. NetWare was perhaps the first attempt at seriously providing a LAN protocol that was easy to use. Will any involve configuring a firewall between LANs? For all practical purposes, the standard LAN protocol today is TCP/IP. Today, as long as the physical underlay is robust and scalable, the emphasis is on designing logical or virtual topologies. These factors make up the logical design for your network. Do you overlook this situation when giving users email capability? Microsoft countered this success with its LANManager products, which were also marketed by other vendors in their own way, such as the Pathworks solution from Digital Equipment Corporation. Microsoft and other vendors offer similar features. The terms RAID and UPS are important in today's networks, as is the concept of load balancing and dual-redundant power supplies in large networks. Therefore, logical network diagrams typically show subnets (including VLAN IDs, masks, and addresses), network devices like routers and firewalls, and routing protocols. There are "secure" versions of these applications and there are versions that leave a door wide open into your network. From a security point of view, it is usually considered very improper to allow any new application to be loaded on any computer—desktop or server—without first submitting the application to testing to ensure that is necessary and is not a security risk. By building redundancy into the network design at the start, you'll save yourself a lot of grief in the future. Chapter 11, "Network Attached Storage and Storage Area Networks," describes methods you can use to mirror data at geographically distant locations. You can solve this problem by giving your users access to two different nationwide ISPs. Shop now. The physical aspects of your LAN will depend on the underlying physical transport technology—Ethernet or Token-Ring, for example, or possibly ATM, which is now supported in products such as Windows 2000/XP and Server 2003 as a LAN protocol. Chapter 5 can give you more suggestions about using clustering, backups, uninterruptible power supplies, and other techniques that can keep the network up and running. If you are still using older proprietary protocols, you should consider upgrading to TCP/IP, which is now the de facto standard, from the worldwide Internet down to the LAN. Without the right tools, you en…. For example, instead of sending a catalog that may be out of date in a month or so, you can use iPrint to periodically send specific information relevant to each customer, by printing it directly to the customer's printer. The distinction between LAN and WAN (wide area networking) protocols is beginning to blur. Combine that with Network Address Translation, and the long-term bets are going to be on IPv6, or possibly some of the features that are part of IPv6. When looking at a logical network design, it easier to describe it as how the network will be structured, basically it focuses on all the logical aspects of the network. There are two main types of network diagrams: physical and logical. If you are upgrading older applications, several other factors come into consideration. And because TCP/IP is so intertwined with Ethernet, you can achieve an end-to-end MAN link that uses TCP/IP over faster Ethernet connections. Although there are other LAN technologies, such as ARCnet and Novell's IPX/SPX, these are basically legacy products that are no longer being deployed in newer networks. Upgrading and Repairing Networks, 4th Edition, Computer Networking Problems and Solutions: An innovative approach to building resilient, modern networks, Mobile Application Development & Programming. A logical network diagram displays how information flows through a network, allowing you to see subnets, network devices, and routing protocols. The 4 step is plan the network implementation which involves the … More stress = hig…, SLAs today are tightening and network issues threaten your ability to fulfill them. Have a strong work ethic & excellent people sk…, Graphical Networks recently introduced our new netTerrain DCIM bundles: they give you the support you need to tackl…, Missed today's webinar on how our outside plant module netTerrain OSP helps you better manage your circuits and cab…, With so much change, it’s all but impossible to keep the infrastructure documented by hand and without some degree…, the following elements in your logical network topology, network mapping software (such as netTerrain), Meet Your SLAs with Network Diagram Software, How Network Diagrams & Documentation Overhaul Your Workflow, No Network Diagrams? Blog: By using DCIM for capacity planning, you improve operational efficiencies and can offset or defer costly data cente…, When a device goes down or a serious incident pops up, a cycle starts of stress and costs begins. At one site this author worked at, there were redundant power lines bringing electricity into the site—side-by-side. Most applications today come in secure versions or can be used with a proxy server to help minimize the possibility of abuse. With 10Gigabit Ethernet, you can use TCP/IP not only to create a local area network backbone, but to extend that reach to a metropolitan area network. There are two primary parts to the topology definition: the physical design, which is the actual layout of the wire (media), and the logical design, which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. Are they limited in scope? It is interesting to note that in Windows NT 3.51, the default network protocol was Microsoft's implementation of IPX/SPX (NWLink). Cabling plays an important part of network design as it provides … Can you trust each employee to use this application without abusing it? Although Novell has not made statements to this point, it appears to this author that the company is beginning to de-emphasize its networking capabilities and is instead making a change toward selling Web services (iPrint and iFile, among others). For more information about SONET, ATM, and Frame Relay, see Chapter 16, "Dedicated Connections.". NetWare 6 contains many features that can be used to create an Internet portal and enable remote access by users and customers. Each application should have a written risk assessment document that points out potential security problems, if any. You may find a packaged application that can be used to replace older programs. Usually, in campus LAN topologies, focusing at layer 2 (at the switching layer), some kind of a structured, multi-tier models are used to simplify the design and the network implementation. Every user has his or her favorite application. Designing a network topology is the first step in the logical design phase of the top-down network design methodology. Today the de facto protocol of choice has to be TCP/IP. Will you need to allow an Internet connection for just your internal network's users, or will use you need to allow outside vendors access to your network? New applications should be justified with facts that show why they are needed. They might not like it, and training might be necessary, but supporting multiple applications that do the same thing wastes money and leads to confusion.
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