The trail turned back into … Ibrahim Rugova, first President of Kosovo (1992–2000) and was re-elected by parliament (2002–2006). The Indians returned fire with Winchester rifles and formed a line at the very top of the heights. Few reliable sources existed. As Victorio turned to bypass the spring on the east, ten soldiers rushed out to confront him. T. Corgaghessan Boyle, novelist and short story writer (Water Music). FOLLOWING THE WARPATH: Quitman Pass to Dog Canyon This is a terrible scan of a fragment of Texas road map, but it gives some idea of Nana’s tactical position and his probable movements after he crossed the river below Fort Quitman. Understandably, he felt betrayed. Colonel Hatch again misrepresented the success, ascribing the victory to the cavalry, with slight assistance from the scouts. As early as 1862, Federal forces had re-captured forts Bliss (El Paso), Quitman (Hudspeth County), and Davis (Jeff Davis County). The Mescaleros with him may have tried to persuade him to dash northward to their agency and surrender, or to refit and once more take to the warpath; or he may have resolved on his own to attempt one of those two courses. Instead of settling, however, Victorio and many members of his band hid in the recesses of the Black Range. Please note the time difference between Quitman, GA and Canyon, TX is 1 hour. Quitman Mountains from Mapcarta, the free map. After the Rio Palomas battle, Victorio went on some raids to Mexico repeatedly fording the Rio Grande, after having been intercepted and beaten off, with a 60 warriors' party, at Quitman Canyon (July 30, 1880). Hatch almost succeeded. Morrow commanded the strongest, accompanied by Hatch. Quickly they worked themselves up among the boulders and crevices and hid themselves to wait out the long night. A formidable force of black foot soldiers with long rifles surrounded the wagons and stopped the attack. He returned to Mexico. If any Indians escaped to the east, Grierson, moving west from Fort Concho in central Texas, could intercept them. Nana, a powerful chief of the Chihenne Apaches, joined Victorio for several of his raids. In the autumn of 1879, he declared war. The soldiers recovered only a few arms, but Hatch left behind a strong guard while he turned again to chasing Victorio. The command turned back north and arrived at Fort Bayard on November 2. It also turned him back to Mexico. On February 8, 1880, in a rare outburst of frustration, he confided to a fellow officer: I am heartily sick of this business and am convinced that the most expeditious & least expensive way to settle the Indian troubles in this section is to employ about 150 Apache Indian scouts and turn them loose on Victorio without interference of troops except general instructions from the officer conducting the campaign. The Pueblo is one of three tribes located in Texas and the only Pueblo located in the state. Selecting a canyon with steep, rocky slopes, he camped on the canyon floor and waited. Despite his age and his physical infirmities, Nana remained a powerful leader. Reporting this engagement, Hatch telegraphed a brief, confusing narrative of troop movements, but pronounced Victorio “thoroughly whipped.” General of the Army William T. Sherman directed that his congratulations be conveyed to Hatch. They fired steadily until nearly out of ammunition. MHQ. His home, Warm Springs, is nestled between the craggy, forested Black Range of the Mimbres Mountains to the south and the San Mateo Mountains to the north. I leave here tomorrow and will stick to Victorio’s trail so long as a serviceable animal or an able soldier is left but I still think that the pursuit is an unprofitable one and Indians should be employed on the principle of fighting fire with fire. The fight had cost Victorio seven killed and a large number wounded. Victorio took a bullet in his leg, and thirty or more of his people—men, women, and children—fell dead, while many others sustained wounds. Their long service in the Southwest made them seasoned veterans. Email: info@forttours.org. Grierson knew that they would have to stop at Tinaja de las Palmas the next day for water. Brittany Spears, singer, songwriter, actress; her … Baby One More Time (1999) became the best-selling album to date (2013) by a teenage solo artist. By late October 1879, Victorio had decided to cross into Mexico to rest. Charles Ringling, one of the seven Ringling brothers of circus fame. Once on the trail, he refused to let go. But Grierson knew that his adversary would soon return, and he went to Eagle Springs to wait. Quitman Mountains is a mountain in Texas and has an elevation of 6680 feet. By January 28, 1881, they were within 2 hours of the Apache. Not only were those efforts rebuffed in Washington, but in 1871 the federal government decided to move the Indians to an altogether different location more than fifty miles to the west, at the foot of the Tularosa Mountains. As Hatch prepared for the move late in March, he received intelligence that Victorio had been camped in the San Andres Mountains for more than a month. Major Morrow managed to put troops on Victorio’s trail, buttressed by the incredible tracking skills of the army’s Apache scouts. Army patrols swarmed into the mountains of western New Mexico and edged Victorio northward until he surrendered at Fort Wingate. He inherited the mantle of Victorio and headed west for the Sierra Madre, where Juh welcomed him. He had to acknowledge that neither his cavalry nor his scouts could probably attain the objective before expending all their ammunition. Quitman Canyon : The following story of the October, ... Captain Viele with Troops C and G of the 10th Cavalry charged down the road from Eagle Springs and joined the battle. After a skirmish lasting about an hour, Captain Viele with Troops C and G of the 10th Cavalry charged down the road from Eagle Springs and joined the battle. (Accounts of casualties vary wildly. Shadowed by the San Mateo Mountains and spurs of the Black Range, the creek flows southeast into the Rio Grande. They were surrounded. As the troopers settled in for the night, the Indian scouts crept forward to find Victorio’s camp. Much to his surprise, however, Morrow risked an international incident by sticking to Victorio’s trail even into Mexico. Hunkering down, they exchanged fire with their attackers all day. At that moment, horsemen charging from Rattlesnake Springs hit the Apaches in the rear, and they fled to the southwest, into a mountain range. At the same time, though, as Mescalero warriors joined his band and left, he fended off the efforts of the agent to make contact. The disarming on April 16 went badly. Morrow’s men repeatedly tried to push through to the top. The Carrizal Massacre led the veteran Mexican Indian fighter, Gen. Geronimo Treviño, to launch a formidable campaign to destroy Victorio. Drawn by small, swift Mexican mules, the coach left Fort Quitman, a former Army post on the Rio Grande, August 13, 1880. They could easily replenish both stock and provisions by raiding ranches and mining communities, taking a toll of dead defenders as they went. Captain Gilmore had sent him to escort the colonel to Eagle Springs. To the east was Fort Davis, headquarters of … So were their senior officers—all white, of course. Victorio moved his people east to the Candelaria Mountains, which straddled the road from Chihuahua City to El Paso. Most of these forts remained in Union hands for the duration of the war. Peter Carl Goldmark, engineer, developed the first commercial color television and the long-playing phonograph record. The victory, of course, had been Victorio’s, not Hatch’s, and Captain McLellan and his Arizona troops and scouts had conducted the only serious fighting. Both sides formed skirmish lines and exchanged fire for about an hour. The only other group to have inhabited western Texas, the Mescalero Apaches, left for Mexico or for the New Mexico reservation in the 1870s. He died ten years later, surely well beyond eighty years old. The colonel veered at once to the west and attacked over the top of the mountains, hoping to trap the Indians between Morrow and McLellan. Grierson had lost one man killed and Lt. R. S. Colladay wounded. The Apaches followed in a wild charge. When their own began to break down, they simply stole remounts from the nearest ranch. Stories abound of how the chieftain died: the most reliable, told by the Apache who found his body, is that he fatally stabbed himself with his knife. A few survivors—12 warriors, 4 women, and 4 children— returned to Texas. 98.2 First Hand Account of the Ambush of General Byrne’s Coach in Quitman Canyon. "We then let fly from our fortifications at the Indians about 300 yards off," wrote young Robert Grierson in his diary, "& golly you ought to've seen 'em turn tail & strike for the hills. It's a Not chosen size geocache, with difficulty of 2.5, terrain of 4. In the summer of 1872, the army moved the Chihennes there, removing them from their sacred homeland. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. Carroll’s force would almost certainly have been annihilated: he himself was badly wounded, as were seven of his men, two mortally. Victorio ' s War, or the Victorio Campaign, was an armed conflict between the Apache followers of Chief Victorio, the United States, and Mexico beginning in September 1879. The latter ran into the canyon to alert their tribesmen, and all scrambled up the canyon wall, where rock breastworks had been thrown up on the crest. He took revenge. Early in November, Mexican citizens from Carrizal picked up the trail of one of Victorio’s raiding parties and dispatched fifteen men to follow. Additional stations were established at Live Oak Creek, where the army placed Fort Lancaster in 1855; in Quitman Canyon, where Fort Quitman was established in 1858; and at Comanche Springs, where the army began erecting Fort Stockton in 1859. Laboring up the mountains from the south with Morrow’s battalion, Hatch received word by courier from McLellan of the fight raging on the slopes above Hembrillo Canyon. Brig. The river proved twelve miles distant instead of five, and he did not reach it until daylight. Published in the Grant County Herald, 9 October, 1880. Gen. Oliver O. Howard met with Victorio, established a bond, and agreed that the Chihennes should return to Ojo Caliente. . Believing himself distant from his foes, Victorio slowed and instructed scattered groups to unite at a lake near three low, rocky peaks called Tres Castillos. Unknown to Victorio, Morrow’s command had nearly destroyed itself. Deran Sarafian was born on January 17, 1958 in Los Angeles, California, USA. Also at his command were the four companies of the 24th Infantry under Lt. Col. John E. Yard already stationed at Davis, a troop of the 8th Cavalry, and a detachment of Pueblo scouts recruited at the old Indian towns of Socorro and Ysleta, below El Paso. Suddenly rifle fire erupted from all directions, the flashes reflecting on the surface of the lake. Troops pressed from the rear until the remainder of the Indians had escaped across the border. His escort—an officer, six men, and his teenage son Robert—fortified the waterhole and waited. Quitman County is bounded on the north by Chattahoochee County, GA. On … Suddenly Victorio spotted a large body of cavalry charging toward the battleground from the east. Grierson’s cavalry charged in pursuit, bringing down several Indians with carbine fire. Stone Phillips, Emmy-winning journalist; co-anchor of Dateline NBC. Recognizing the futility of further effort, at about one o’clock in the morning, Morrow pulled his command back to where the horses had been corralled. Would they remain at Ojo Caliente, or would the army one day appear and force them to go back to San Carlos? He has been married to Laurie Fortier … . Apaches attacked a stagecoach in Quitman canyon. John C. Gilmore, commanding at Eagle Springs, rode up with word that Victorio and 150 warriors had crossed the river, fired on two patrols, and were riding up Quitman Canyon. No western American Indian chief received shabbier treatment from the U.S. government than Victorio. Library of Congress. Coming out of the volunteer service in the Civil War as general officers, they attained colonelcies in the Regular Army because of distinguished wartime service. He was worn out by the continued chase, which took a hard toll on the women and children, and tormented by frequent encounters with the pursuing soldiers. Rations ran short. Finally, the Chihennes knew well the safety offered by the international boundary: when too closely pressed, they could find refuge in Mexico. The Chihennes relied chiefly on raiding into Mexico for subsistence, stock, and trade goods. The men stayed only a few months before breaking away to head back toward their homes. Not all of Victorio’s followers had been present at Tres Castillos. The springs give rise to Alamosa Creek. “Nana’s Raid” ravaged southwestern New Mexico for a month in the summer of 1881, killing between thirty and fifty whites and capturing herd after herd of horses, all while reenacting Victorio’s success in eluding pursuing troops. Some turned west to cross the Rio Grande and hide in the Black Range, and the rest headed for the Mescalero Reservation. It twisted and turned through mountain and desert, but Baylor hung on. The infantrymen organized wagon and pack trains to shuttle supplies from Fort Davis to the cavalry columns lacing the deserts to the west. Soon after joining the Ranger company in 1844, he and 14 other Rangers took on some 80 Comanches in the battle … Victorio and his people rejoiced; they could now live in their sacred homeland and care for it. Quitman canyon (GC2Q7B5) was created by Rockdawg350 on 3/13/2011. No less exhausted than the horses, his men dropped at once and slept. The gunfire from both sides flashed vividly in the night, with increasing intensity. The campaign ends after an inconclusive battle at Blanco Canyon, in which Mackenzie is wounded. Few reliable sources existed. Another foray into western New Mexico seemed futile. The government, unable to find an acceptable alternative, at last relented and established a Chihenne reservation at Ojo Caliente in 1874. In September 1880, Mexican Col. Joaquín Terrazas scoured the country with a force that grew from two hundred to more than three hundred as volunteers enlarged his command. Baylor's Texas Rangers took the trail. In July 1872 another peace emissary appeared. In fact, not a single Regular took part in the battle. On the morning of July 30, Victorio approached the spring from the south but discovered that a handful of the 10th Cavalry commanded by Colonel Grierson held a commanding height. Morrow ordered Gatewood to lead the scouts in a swing to the right in an effort to flank the enemy position while his cavalrymen would simultaneously resume their assault. Hatch would march from the west and Grierson from the east; they would join forces in April to disarm and dismount the Mescaleros that were on the reservation there. Although he defended his charges, the Indian agent there had to admit that some Mescaleros had joined Victorio. Included are major actions at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, culminating with the fall of Mexico City. No longer content with hiding in the Black Range, Victorio embarked on relentless war for the next two months—not solely against soldiers but also against all the white miners and ranchers who had filtered into Apache ranges. Georgi Zhukov, Soviet general who captured Berlin during World War II. ... the Rangers came with tracking down a band of Apaches that had attacked a stage coach in Quitman Canyon. Short and muscular, he impressed white negotiators as sincere and soft-spoken. The Battle for Mexico City refers to the series of engagements from September 8 to September 15, 1847, in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War. The merciless desert yielded almost no water, and the Apaches had drained their water tanks. And no one demonstrated a greater mastery of guerrilla warfare. Most important, old Nana had been absent with some of his people. Desperate fighting continued for another hour, when still another force of horsemen charged into the fray: Capt. He raided and burned ranches, killed ranchers and miners, and stole horses. There he found them almost completely broken down. Their skills proved indispensable in trailing the Victorio and his renegades, as well as in fighting them. The pursuit had been long, hard, and persistent. Following the cold trail, Baylor and his Rangers tracked the Apaches down the bank of the Rio Grande and into Mexico. Gen. Byrne was killed almost at once but the driver, Ed Walde, turned the stage and raced back to the fort for safety. Henry Carroll led another, and Ambrose Hooker the third. As it had in 1855, Fort Davis was to serve as a supply center and communications link with San Antonio. The Chihennes knew every rocky height and sinuous crevice of the tangled land, and they knew how to position themselves on craggy elevations invulnerable to enemy assault and usually ideal for ambushing any pursuing force. Victorio had crossed the river and taken refuge in the San Andres Mountains. Fort Duncan on the Rio Grande lasted until 1922. After routing the Mexicans at the Battle of Churubusco, Scott's army was only five miles (8 km) away from its objective of Mexico City.Although defeated at Cerro Gordo and Churubusco, General Santa Anna'sarmy remained intact and … At 9 on the morning of July 30 the Apaches approached the waterhole and, seeing the troopers, attempted to bypass it on the east. Such origins, rather than West Point and the Regulars, counted against them, as did their command of black regiments. On the morning of July 30, Victorio approached the spring from the south but discovered that a handful of the 10th Cavalry commanded by Colonel Grierson held a commanding height. After the Rio Palomas battle, Victorio went on some raids to Mexico repeatedly fording the Rio Grande, after having been intercepted and beaten off, with a 60 warriors' party, at Quitman Canyon (July 30, 1880). That achievement, however, is a tribute to his leadership and the fortitude and courage of his black troopers. The mountains are so named for Fort Quitman that was built in the 1800's in this area. Quitman County is named after General John A. Quitman, a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War and governor of Mississippi. It's located in Texas, United States.Nice little hike to the top of a hill in Quitman canyon. Howard succeeded, but in his mind, the creation of the Ojo Caliente reservation was conditioned on Cochise agreeing to move there. Charles D. Viele, that had been posted at Eagle Springs. In a tribute to the work of his men, Morrow singled out the Apache scouts from Arizona, whom he credited “entirely” with driving Victorio out of the country. Late in the afternoon they sighted a wagon train approaching from the southeast and galloped out of the mountains to attack it. The canyon begins eight miles southwest of Sierra Blanca in south central Hudspeth County (at 31°05' N, 105°27' W) and runs southwest for ten miles to its end, a half mile north of the Rio Grande and a half mile southeast of the Neely Ranch (at 31°00' N, 105°32' W). He concentrated eight troops of the 10th Cavalry at Fort Davis and went there himself. The skirmish lines dissolved as the ten soldiers withdrew to their defenses and the reinforcements fought their way through to join the beleaguered few. Sleeping warriors scrambled to defend themselves or escape, but in every direction they ran, volleys of fire drove them back. The Mimbres range extends north to south about fifty miles west of the Rio Grande (in New Mexico, the river runs north to south before turning southeast at El Paso). Morrow hoped to find water at the Corralitos River, which he judged to be only about five miles to his front, but he had no guide familiar with the country and was groping blindly for the river. Strengthened by a troop of the 6th Cavalry and Lieutenant Gatewood’s Apache scouts from Arizona, Hatch had already, in late February, called together all twelve troops of the 9th Cavalry and organized them into three battalions. Nana then allied himself with Geronimo and surrendered with him in 1886. Faced with arrest and forcible relocation from his homeland in New Mexico to San Carlos Indian Reservation in southeastern Arizona, Victorio led a guerrilla war across southern New Mexico, west Texas and northern Mexico. Grierson would play no further part in the conflict, contenting himself with sealing off the Rio Grande to prevent another attempted crossing. Louis H. Carpenter joined him there. It was a fitting tribute to the extraordinary leadership of the brilliant but tragic leader of the Victorio War of 1879–80. Before marching to rendezvous with Colonel Grierson at the agency, Hatch hoped he could converge his battalions on Hembrillo Canyon, the site of reliable springs, and destroy his enemy. Grierson, anticipating Victorio’s return and tipped off to his location, had led two troops of cavalry in a punishing dash up the east side of the range, marching sixty-five miles in twenty-one hours to reach Rattlesnake Springs before Victorio. Neglecting to post his people on a defensible height, he laid out his camp in a canyon not far from Ojo Caliente. Alexander Haig, American army general and Secretary of State for President Ronald Reagan. This is the fastest route from Quitman, GA to Canyon, TX. Only a few escaped who had been with him. Cochise refused, and instead Howard established the Chiricahua Reservation for him in southeastern Arizona. Once again, Morrow’s command exhausted themselves and their animals in the punishing mountains. After capturing the port of Veracruz in March, General Winfield Scott was able to secure a base and move inland and defeat a large Mexican force at the Battle of Cerro Gordo. Victorio and his people were herded across the mountains to that desolate place. Outnumbered and outfought, Victorio turned back to Mexico. Yet he knew that if he could hold Victorio there, other units could be summoned to the battle. Cache is a preform tube with a log only...take a writing instrument. The halfway point is Jacksonville, AR. His advance, however, mistook Finley's detachment for Indians and opened fire, forcing it to withdraw to the waterhole. Grierson strengthened the subposts along the Rio Grande at Viejo Pass, Eagle Springs, and old Fort Quitman, which had been abandoned as a permanent post 3 years earlier. Access-restricted-item true Addeddate 2019-01-07 01:28:06 Bookplateleaf 0010 Boxid IA1624717 Camera Sony Alpha-A6300 (Control) Collection_set china Foldoutcount At the end of the war, The New York Times reported four hundred deaths at Victorio’s hands; the real number is likely far smaller.). More important, the trackers kept Victorio’s followers in a constant state of insecurity. Gen. John Pope, who commanded the Department of the Missouri, conceived a plan to end the war. Grierson returned to Texas. Ordered to approach Hembrillo Canyon from the east, Captain Carroll paused on April 7 for water at a spring that turned out to be so loaded with gypsum that it all but unfitted both men and horses. Nikos Kazantzakis, Greek writer and lawyer (Zorba the Greek). Sometimes Victorio counted one hundred or more warriors plus some women and children. On September 4, 1879, Victorio and about forty warriors launched their war. After the Rio Palomas battle, Victorio went on some raids to Mexico repeatedly fording the Rio Grande, after having been intercepted and beaten off, with a 60 warriors' party, at Quitman Canyon (July 30, 1880). | Links | PX and Library Colonel Grierson was determined that West Texas would not serve as the pathway. Hatch’s civilian captain of scouts, Henry K. Parker, had led some seventy Apache scouts on Victorio’s trail, discovered his camp, and during the night succeeded in posting contingents on four sides. Determined to block the way with troops summoned from the subposts, the colonel and a small escort rode eastward from Quitman on July 29. Dividing to seek pure water, they found none until Carroll himself, with two troops, discovered Hembrillo Springs—and Victorio. The scouts succeeded in getting within ten feet of the objective, but were pinned down when the Apaches rolled down big rocks from above. Giffords later resigns her congressional seat and with her husband, Mark Kelly, campaigns for gun safety. In January 1881 a small band of Apaches attacked a stagecoach in Quitman Canyon. By mid-May the troops had exhausted their mounts, which were so broken down that the soldiers had to withdraw to Ojo Caliente and resume the chase on foot. Seeing the fire came from all sides, Victorio ordered his people to scale the rocky heights of the nearest of the three low mountains. Water, held by hard-fighting soldiers, had again confounded Victorio’s drive toward the Mescalero agency. With a large fire blazing to cook the meat, the Indians relaxed as night began to descend. 1872 While on an expedition to the Llano Estacado, companies of Mackenzie's 4th Cavalry, 24th Infantry, and Tonkawa scouts attack a Comanche village of 175 lodges on the North Fork of the Red River. For one tribal leader, the decision to make war on the United States was a matter of rights and spirituality. 210 99 Grierson’s Situation Report 19 August, 1880. The Battle of Rattlesnake Springs On August 6, 1880 two companies of Colonel Benjamin Grierson’s African-American 10th Cavalry troopers from Fort Davis defeated a band of Apaches led by the Warm Springs chief Victorio and turned them back into Mexico, where Victorio was shortly afterward killed. Capt. They had not had water for three days, and unless the horses were watered at once, his troops would likely be dismounted entirely. Victorio knew one remained, but hesitated for days. At 4 a.m. Lt. Leighton Finley and 15 cavalrymen reached Grierson. Henry Armstrong, the only boxer to hold three titles simultaneously. Warriors stationed on hills at the entrance to the canyon heard the scouts’ horses and mules braying for want of water and opened fire. Marshal in Galveston, and at the time of his death employed to locate lands in West Texas assigned to the Texas and Pacific Railroad. In fact, Victorio relied on the Mescalero Reservation for recruiting and reprovisioning. The Ysleta del Sur Pueblo is a federally recognized U.S. American Indian tribe located in West Texas and within El Paso County. At this moment Capt. Although it was aimed too high to do any damage, the Indians’ fire was so heavy that Morrow’s troops stopped the advance. He went home to Chihuahua City in triumph, an even greater hero for having achieved glory without any help from American soldiers. He is a producer and director, known for Alien Predator (1986), House M.D. Plagued in civilian life by racism and discrimination, blacks could find a better life in the military. Although he expected the Indians to return and had disposed his command at various strategic points to intercept them, Morrow consoled himself with the fact that at least he had driven Victorio out of the United States. 212 After a brief skirmish with soldiers on August 4, he slipped through the screen and raced north on the west side of the forbidding Sierra Diablo Range. Victorio had laid an ambush in a pass where the road crossed the mountains: all fifteen men were killed. First, of course, was Victorio himself—a splendid warrior and natural leader, who drew followers with his often-stated conviction that he would rather die than be sent back to San Carlos. Captain Baylor's Texas Rangers, based at Ysleta, stood ready to help. At Quitman Canyon the Apaches ambushed a stagecoach and killed the driver and the passenger, J. J. Byrne, a Union general in the Civil War, later U.S. It was an ideal place to rest, feed and water their horses, and feast on recently killed cattle. Deran Sarafian, Producer: Alien Predator. About 320 Indians had been assembled, many of them women and children. Born in the early 1820s, Victorio rose to warrior status through the intense training that shaped all Apache fighters. The military authorities knew that Victorio would soon enter the United States once more and probably head straight for the Mescalero country of southern New Mexico. In another hour of skirmishing, Viele fought his way through to Grierson. They were close to the Mescalero Reservation, and he entertained hope of arranging a peace through the agent there. The major thought long and hard about returning to the fray. Us | Mail Bag | Search | Intro | Upcoming Events | Reader's Road Trips, Fort Tours Systems - Founded by Rick Steed (Although his own women and children remained at San Carlos, Nana and some Mescaleros had brought their families). Victorio attacked, but heavy fire drove his men back into the mountains. . As it entered a steep canyon Victorio's men attacked. Day after insufferable day, debilitating thirst plagued both men and animals. | Contact And while some saw in his face the merciless savage, others thought he had an agreeable countenance. (2004) and Interzone (1989). His strength grew from 60 warriors to more than 125 as Mescaleros left their reservation to join him. The Texas Hospital & Confederate Cemetery Quitman, Mississippi, February 17, 1864 By Wayne C. Bengston May 30, 2003 Archusa Springs, an Indian derivation meaning "Little River" but for the people of Clarke County, Mississippi they have their own meaning for the Springs, "Sweet Water."
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